Mnajdra S, in operation after 5000 years – test of model.

As per picture text (Note: date is correct, but time is not correct). The superimposed picture is a screen-shot from video of the moment of sunrise, taken from within the model. The scale used is a quadrant divided by 90. Adjustment is needed since Spring has 92.8 days. Seasons vary from ~88 to ~94 days.

This unit is still fully functional (but that fact is not known). Yet its workings were the most difficult to unravel, until the method used in Ggantija North unit was perceived. When tested in model form it proved extremely accurate. The test objective was to forecast the solstice day. To date determining solstice day from observation was difficult; forecasting was impossible. The megalithic technique made it simple.

Forecasting and knowing the solstice day is essential in agriculture, to know the time window when the sowing for the coming year’s harvest can be made. Particularly for the cereals, the makers of civilisations. Mediterranean latitudes allow for only one cereal harvest per year, after the first rains of Autumn.

This calendar has another important feature. It was designed on a lower obliquity, same is the other next to it, but had to be modified by extending the surface for a change to higher obliquity. The two side stones are the extension.

Tour the site with Google Earth:,14.436509,3a,90y,208.24h,78.48t/data=!3m8!1e1!3m6!1s-CxezQUTFEXg%2FVCBgIqDewII%2FAAAAAAAA_u4%2FtryCRoLTDFc9F9uY7Dw5r0clPQ2wWWtpACLIB!2e4!3e11!!7i2508!8i1254

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Searching Evidence – 4: Prehistoric Mass Burials.

This is a strange and sad proxy to consider in search of evidence that tells of events during the Holocene and later. But a recent paper by Cain G et. al. some weeks ago highlighted the importance of this subject. It is important because it shows directly the effect on humanity of these natural events. The name of the paper is “Prehistoric Coastal Mass Burials: Did Death Come in Waves?” published July 2018. The paper anticipates that the main actor in the cause of deaths is the tsunami. However it is here considered that the tsunami is a secondary event, the effect of a cause. The primary cause is something else. This thread points to evidence that uncovers the primary cause.

The correlation of dates to earlier material, plus what is inferred from the evidence, appears to corroborate events as elicited from previous research. One very important date from the paper is 5500BP (~3500 bce). Previous research, and as the megalithic calendar indicates, this was an Earth tilt change (a high-to-low). At first difficult to identify, this date showed up, along with others, from research on Iceland’s glaciers in a paper by D’Andrea et al “Glacier response to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene”.

The Cain paper not only identified evidence of mass burials dated to around 5500BP in Northern Scotland and Scottish isles, there were found indications of changed habitation; changed marine and terrestrial fauna (from before to after); changed terrain conditions, all indicating changed climatic conditions. This date also showed up in deep sea cores from the Arabian Sea. Then, Prof. P deMenocal identified in such cores a clear marker when the Sahara changed abruptly from wet to dry. The date: 5500 BP. In the North Atlantic proxy the date is a sharper ~3550bce.

Another later ‘second phase’ of mass-burial related evidence was also identified; nearer to 3000bce. An event, 3195bce, had been identified in tree-rings. This date is also associated with mass burials found in similar condition and related to megalithic sites in Central Med. In sea bottom deposits this shows up as a thick sapropel layer (see Searching Evidence – 2). Interestingly, at yet another site, the Ness of Brodgar, fresh habitation started after this date, post ~3000bce. Termination appeared abrupt around 2200bce, by in-fill containing cattle bones; similar as elsewhere in the Mediterranean. Cause: Earth tilt at 2345bce, also evident in C/N and megalithic calendar.

Particular dates, such as the above, show up from various unrelated sites but connected to mass burials, indicate that the root cause was a global x2

Ref: “To Cut a Long Story Short: Formal Chronological Modelling for the Late Neolithic Site of Ness of Brodgar, Orkney – EJA 2017.

Searching Evidence: Update.

W in P

In ‘Searching Evidence -3’ there resulted some interesting correlations with the Eddy cycle. In this here exercise the Eddy cycle was compared to the earliest attempt to find evidence of abrupt Earth changes as have appeared in archaeological research. Much of the material used later was not available at the time. The duration of the Eddy cycle was given as 980 years, but in other sources it was given as 976 +/- 53 years. That spread is of some interest.

In the early studies a comparison of Holocene Earth Temperature ‘anomaly’ values for polar compared to equatorial regions was made. Temperature values were obtained from comparable proxies. Source of proxies was Wiki: ‘Holocene climatic optimum’. Abrupt temp changes were identified, particularly where polar abrupt change/trend was opposite to equatorial. At the time other proxies, particularly dated tree-ring, provided a more firm date than provided by Wiki.

delta O2x

This early work was compared to the Eddy cycle. Minor adjustment on chronology was made to Wiki derived traces, to align with now known firm markers as explained in earlier post. The results are as in picture. The correlations to sequential troughs, – and peaks where available -, are not only with proxies/events from other sources, but also correlate with abrupt temperature changes in both polar and equatorial.

The events are not identical though consequent. Neither are they precise at inflection point of Eddy curve. It seems the source of the Eddy cycle is a triggering force, but the ‘firing’ point is irregular, apparently dependent on other factors also (grouped as ‘Friction’). A reason for the apparent spread of +/- 53years; the effect then being a signature of something else?

Searching Evidence -3

This is still ‘work in progress’.

A graph posted at the blog-site “Climate Etc.” in the series ‘Nature Unbound – IX’ related to the Eddy cycle. Like in similar cases before, this graph was compared chronologically with  graphs in the ‘Searching Evidence’ that relate to the history of megalithic calendars, a primary study subject at this site.

It was with some surprise to find consecutive chronological correlations from the Eddy cycle, to main events as were discerned from calendar design evolution and from other proxies that have showed similar correlations. These correlations point to a series of events of a cataclysmic and destructive nature between 6000 bce and 2000 bce.

No answers are available. It is also an open question of what was the driver; whether the Eddy cycle is a characteristic of the driver mechanism of natural tectonic events, or simply a signature from those events.

Some explanations on dates and respective events:

2345bce: obliquity change ~14.5 to ~24deg. First identified by JF Dodwell; evidenced by alteration of dimensions of Mnajdra south calendar. Appears in Temp anomaly (Wiki) as polar temp increase but equatorial decrease. Plus in other proxies (incl tree ring). Switch from cold to warm in Eddy cycle for high latitudes, opposite for in-between tropics.

4375bce and 6200bce: similar to 2345. First identified in Temp anomaly, later in other proxies. 4375 appeared in tree rings as ‘unexplained’, yet correlated.

3195bce (and 5200): calendar evolution shows two abrupt changes in orientation, an early one, and another near/pre 2900bce. 3195bce noted in tree rings (a precise/narrow date). ~3200 is a period known for climate (Piora oscillation) and civilisation upheaval. There appeared in proxy as an abrupt change in ice rafting, together with an identical event at ~5200. Both are a geological tectonic micro-plate rotation. Evidence is now building up.

3550bce (~5600?): Calendar dimensions show alternate obliquity increase/decrease. The decrease point is difficult to identify time-wise, except for a peak in proxy C/N ice-cap Iceland (see pic). An identical at 5600 corresponds to Eddy peak, indicating warm period but abrupt change towards cooling. Agrees with dimensional change in two adjacent calendars with same orientation (see Ggantija N).

part graph courtesy

ice 4b

Collage of Calendar plans from several sites:

When calendar plans are presented in this way, points of commonality become evident. Important are the design form, relative proportion, and orientation. The smallest and crude in appearance are trefoil in shape with full central horse-shoe apse (group A). These are archaic structures. They are today facing south.

A later group (B) are similar but larger, full central horse-shoe apse,  today face to SE. This group however shows later modifications to a different design. The structures show a transition to a partial central apse and ‘solstice stones’ design configuration.

The last group (C) are of the later design, and face East. One of the last built, Mnajdra South, also shows modification from an 18deg to 29deg equinox-to-solstice ‘viewing angle’ (axial field of view). It has been found to be still functional. It was used in model form to predict the solstice day and hour.

The fact that Mnajdra calendar is functional indicates that the earlier ones from which its design evolved were all calendars. Thus their present orientation is indicative of repeated cataclysmic events during the Holocene. The archaic unit (X) has an anomalous orientation that indicates localised seismic changes (‘micro-plate’ tectonic rotation).


Searching Evidence -2

Another montage sourced from separate technical scientific papers, this time based primarily on ocean sediments that have been dated. The basic info is from papers “Origin and chronology of the Augias deposit in the Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean Sea), based on new regional sedimentological data” by San Pedro L. et al., and “Mediterranean megaturbidite triggered by the AD 365 Crete earthquake and tsunami” by Alina Polonia et al. Supplementary material from paper “Evidence of the Zanclean megaflood in the eastern Mediterranean Basin” by Aaron Micallef et al.

The evidence here comes from seven bottom sediment cores from the central Mediterranean, in particular the core KCIR-05 from the bottom near Malta Escarpment. By comparing with the other cores some reliable dates were obtained going back beyond 11,000 years BCE. The core KCIR-05 shows two distinct layer of ‘sapropel’, organic rich layers, in an otherwise clay material. The layer are at ~3200BCE and possibly ~5200BCE. In between and before are shallower organic layers that also correspond to distinct markers obtained from other sources.

The layers correspond to geological and astronomical changes as found recorded in the Megalithic calendars, thus corroborating further what is becoming more evident in Earth’s history.



Mnajdra South Calendar Design

mnajx1Mnajdra south optical calendar is the last in a series of design improvements and alterations. Grand in style and dimensions, it is the apex of more than 3000 years of development in megalithic calendar design and building.

Time around the equinox was still followed by the old system, a central partial apse at the back, a remnant of the horse-shoe apse. For time around the solstices the side ‘solstice marker’ was used. This was a more accurate method, permitting the predicting of the solstice day and time accurately.

The odd appearance belies the evidence of an important alteration that was implemented at some time after it was built. Originally it had a field of view, solstice to solstice, of about 36 degrees, same as several earlier others. The display surface was extended (solstice extenders) at a later date to a field of view of about 58 degrees ( today’s earth tilt ).

Searching Evidence

This is another montage of data from different sources that highlight a span of time in Holocene max that had a great effect on human history, and that is presently hardly known.

Some due explanations: In the picture the background is Earth temperature for the last 4M years, c. wiki: “Temperature of planet earth”. It shows the holocene and an earlier four glacials. Superimposed rt. is Holocene compared to 3rd earlier inter-glacial c. Wuwt. Upper left added chart from paper by D’Andrea et al “Glacier response to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene”.

Indicated are the tell-tales of the 7200BP and 5200BP events that are crucial to understanding the megalithic calendars and their apparently anomalous orientations. The calendars are evidence/proof of tectonic micro-plate rotations in the central Mediterranean.

Comparing Proxies

Dating events from various proxies, and comparing to calendar design changes and alterations.
Calendars need to be axially aligned to equinox sunrise point on horizon. At ~5200bce and then at ~3200bce there are changes of axial orientation, always CCW, indicating major cataclysmic seismic events. (Note: viewing angle is equinox to solstice of horizon sunrise point, at latitude 35.8 deg N).

Breaking an Ancient Code



Examples of calendars of later design. Each calendar is shown to a different scale, but matched to same and common proportions.

Below are three calendars. They appear different, but the functional parameters are exactly the same. Ggantija North (pre 3200bce) was key to understanding how they worked. Mnajdra middle (similar age but different form, pre 3200bce) and Mnajdra south (post 3200bce, similar form) are side by side, but have different orientation. The latter also incorporates a change in solstice position some time after construction.

This form of calendar appeared shortly after 3550bce, but the technique was developed from an earlier ‘transition’ form . The Ta Hagrat unit is an early form but shows this transition.

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