Mnajdra S, in operation after 5000 years – test of model.

As per picture text (Note: date is correct, but time is not correct). The superimposed picture is a screen-shot from video of the moment of sunrise, taken from within the model. The scale used is a quadrant divided by 90. Adjustment is needed since Spring has 92.8 days. Seasons vary from ~88 to ~94 days.

This unit is still fully functional (but that fact is not known). Yet its workings were the most difficult to unravel, until the method used in Ggantija North unit was perceived. When tested in model form it proved extremely accurate. The test objective was to forecast the solstice day. To date determining solstice day from observation was difficult; forecasting was impossible. The megalithic technique made it simple. (Video here:  )

Forecasting and knowing the solstice day is essential in agriculture, to know the time window when the sowing for the coming year’s harvest can be made. Particularly for the cereals, the makers of civilisations. Mediterranean latitudes allow for only one cereal harvest per year, after the first rains of Autumn.

This calendar has another important feature. It was designed on a lower obliquity, same is the other next to it, but had to be modified by extending the surface for a change to higher obliquity. The two side stones are the extension.

Tour the site with Google Earth:,14.436509,3a,90y,208.24h,78.48t/data=!3m8!1e1!3m6!1s-CxezQUTFEXg%2FVCBgIqDewII%2FAAAAAAAA_u4%2FtryCRoLTDFc9F9uY7Dw5r0clPQ2wWWtpACLIB!2e4!3e11!!7i2508!8i1254

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Searching Evidence: Deaths, Tsunamis and Earth Dynamics.

Pre-history may sometimes be pieced together like a jig-saw puzzle. But the individual pieces may seem invisible, yet be right under the nose. This post links three contrasting pieces together.

Starting here with the paper from Cain et al “Prehistoric Coastal Mass Burials: Did Death Come in Waves?”, the subject refers to mass deaths, that from evidence, were the result of major tsunamis. The subject was introduced earlier here:

One particular case in the Cain paper is ‘mass burials in relatively tectonic inactive areas’. One is the Storegga slide, dated to 8150BP (6200bce). The other is referred to as the Garth tsunami dated to 5500BP (3550bce). Evidence of the former is extensive, and said to be, quote “Geological evidence can be traced from Norway to Greenland, western Scotland, NE England and Denmark”.

This is where the jig-saw pieces fit in place. While the 6200bce event is well know, it is the 3550bce event that is very telling since it coincides with other evidence that reveals the prime causation. That evidence comes from one particular megalithic calendar site.

The site is Ggantija in Gozo, Maltese islands. Calendar sites are common in the islands but this site is the only one where two calendars have the same axial orientation to equinox sunrise on the horizon. While the older unit was built and subsequently underwent design modification, with a constant ~23deg equinox to solstice angle (VA), the other later one was built to an improved design, but to a reduced angle of ~18deg. That particular angle depends on Earth axial tilt or obliquity, and a change in its value indicates a major dynamic Earth event. That change therefore indicates that both tsunamis and slides could be the result of fundamental and far-reaching events.

ggb1 copy

Proxies correlate chronologically and indicate the events as spikes, abrupt and of short duration. The 6200bce Storegga event was a similar to the 3550bce event, but there is yet no telling and corroborating evidence. Another similar event occurred in 2345bce, however in this case later historical science helped. Such was first deduced by G F Dodwell in 1936, working from ancient measurements of Earth axial tilt. The Mnajdra calendar, a unique case also, records such an event in a later alteration, from an 18deg angle to 29deg.

Such events would be global in effect. The number of mass burials, from diverse places, are possibly evidence of such. That the dates now obtained from widely varied sources correlate, adds further support.

Ask Otzi

Sometimes someone comes back from the dead to haunt you. This time it is ‘Otzi the Ice-man’.

The internet site, Malaga Bay, started it off with a post on the Mendenhall Glacier in Alaska. The retreating glacier had uncovered an ancient forest where tree stumps were still to be found in the original position where they once flourished. Wiki gave two particular dates for the trees, about 400 BCE, and ~650 CE. Interestingly both dates correspond to near roots of the enigmatic Eddy cycle. Both dates are from a somewhat little known periods.

From another perspective, Alaska, -and Siberia-, are sites where well preserved mammal remains have, and still are, being found, that raise questions on how they perished. The ‘Ice-age mammals of the Yukon’ show the wide variety of fauna and flora. They were preserved by a ‘fast freeze’ at a time when the climate of the locality then appears to have been warmer than today, as evident by the flora and fauna that the melting ice is uncovering. The interest at this site is mainly on the dating. Dates of some of the Yukon  specimens are placed to the previous ice age period. The Mendenhall trees date to very interesting period post the Holocene Max.

Then came Otzi the Ice-man. Trawling for info came up with this paper. “Radiocarbon dating of the Iceman Ötzi with accelerator mass spectrometry” by Walter Kutschera. This paper came up with a date bang on to a very interesting time. According to the paper and relevant to the vegetative growth in the find place, “Since they apparently grew also at 3210 m (the Ötzi finding place) indicates that a warmer period than today may have existed at the respective time period.”. Possibly therefore it was below the permanent ice line at the time. Which raises the question: what is the ‘fast freeze’ attributed to?

There is a possible answer; one that has showed up elsewhere too. Of the range of dates that appear in the paper one date sticks out; 3230 – 3100 BCE. That date can be narrowed to 3195BCE from tree-rings, or possible 3202BCE based on the Kepler Trigon and Eddy cycle correlation ( )

This is where Otzi the Ice-man comes to life. Did he happen to witness an Earth upheaval that was also fatal to him? Tectonic upheaval in the Mediterranean at that date is evident in the rotation of the megalithic calendars. That same date is marked in research in North Atlantic Ice rafting. The location of the Otzi find ended under ice for the past 5000 years. How? Was it a tectonic uplift to a new elevation rather than just temperature change? Ice core data from the poles indicate that ‘temperature anomaly’ was even higher by 2200 BCE.

tbcdelta O2z2

Searching Evidence: Kepler’s Trigons and Events in the Holocene.

Ancient texts that mention events in prehistoric times, often linked such events of ‘world fire or flood’ with astronomical phenomena. A recent (2005) paper by M. A. van der Sluijs, ‘A Possible Babylonian Precursor to the Theory of Ecpyrōsis’, touches on the astronomical factor in the ancient texts.

A curious piece from the paper is a quote from a Babylonian text, the ‘Babyloniaca’ attributed to the Babylonian priest Berossus (third century BCE), says that, quote: “Berossus … affirms that the whole issue is brought about by the course of the planets”. It refers to the ‘Great Year’, and relates to planetary alignments that were studied by Johannes Kepler and known as Kepler’s Trigon. The major planets are Jupiter and Saturn, and a Great Conjunction is a conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn.

An extract from another Babylonian epic text,  one version from said paper reads thus: “– I rose up from my dwelling, and the control of heaven and earth was undone. The very heavens I made to tremble, the positions of the stars of heaven changed, and I did not return them to their places. –”  A change in the ‘position of the stars of heaven’ can be an axial shift.

Earlier studies of evidence had provided very near dates to events as they were discerned from the megalithic calendars together with the various proxies. Searching these dates in ‘Solar System Live’, an online software giving planetary positions for specific dates, has resulted in some interesting very near planetary alignment connected to the dates. The dates are too near for simple coincidence. The planets are Saturn and Jupiter, in line with Earth and the Sun, in S J E S order. However such conjunctions are frequent, so the relevance of these specific conjunctions to the prehistoric events remains an enigma.





The World of the ‘Two Queens’ – 2

The Myth of the ‘Two Queens’ has an important meaning. The persons of the ‘Divine Triad’, from earliest roots, were mother, daughter, and young son. While this has been evident over the millennia, the meaning of the Triad was not. However there is evidence that its meaning was not lost and appears clear in a painting from Greece. The painting is key to the meaning of the ancient agrarian lore.

It is another representation of the ‘Two Queens’. Painted on a vase, it is a metaphorical representation of the cultivation of the cereals, and at the same time reflects an ancient myth from which it originates, itself a metaphorical lesson in cereal cultivation. The story in the myth represents the life-cycle of the cereal plant, and a calendar of the stages of its cultivation. Hence the link and association to the solar calendar.


The ‘Two Queens’, now accompanied by the grown child in centre. A plougher par excellence and a ‘seeder of the furrow’, represented as a comparison to human reproduction. His two implements, shown oddly, tell that function clearly. The plough penetrates the earth and in the opened furrow the seed is sown.

The oldest artifact, and most clear in identity because the child is held in a wicker winnowing basket, is of Maltese origin, and is more than 6000 years old. The associated myth in its earliest form and considered of a contemporary age, comes from later texts from ancient Mesopotamia.
The common and central element in the picture is the ‘Ear of Corn’ (added in 1 and 2).

The Child is born in a grain winnowing basket of wicker construction (fig1), the ancient ‘vannus’. As a youth his duties are allotted to him, fig 2. The coming of age as a grown up lad, his work is the ploughing of the furrow and sowing of seed grain, fig3. However in the more ancient myth he represents the ‘vigor and fertility’ of nature. It is an allegory, a personification of grain cultivation.

The World of the ‘Two Queens’.

Well known as archaeological artifacts, and evident in varied form and place of origin, the ‘Two Queens’ are not so well known as mythical personalities of some import. Over the decades exemplars have turned up in archaeological sites. Their origins are lost in remote history, but they are still around in their evolved representations. They make a somewhat mysterious appearance in myths, spread over millennia, yet it was not realised that in every form and aspect they always represented one and the same metaphorical concept. Many-times seen as con-joined twins, they are the ‘alter-ego’ of one another. They represent two states of one agrarian cycle; the Virgin Seed and the Mother Plant.

In the earliest forms they are rather rude artifacts, discernible as an anthropological form, but totally devoid of meaning. Still, in such a form, that of two apparently conjoined women, it was very enigmatic. One good example was from Catal Huyuk in Anatolia, and dating back to the fifth millennium BCE. But the best three exemplars from which a meaning could be elicited were from Crete 2nd millennium bce, Greece 1st millennium bce, and Gozo 4th millennium bce.

It is in the latter three exemplars, where the two females are accompanied by a young male child or grown lad, that these artifacts could be related to the myths. One well known myth is from Classical Greece, from where it is also known in paintings. But importantly, the characters have appeared in more ancient texts, namely in Linear ‘B’ from Mycenaean Greece and older still, in cuneiform texts from ancient Mesopotamia.

The meaning of the classical Greek version, the ‘Mother and Maid’,  was known variously from antiquity. However the version that was known was a ‘garbled’ version of the original. In the Greek version the child has a secondary function, whereas in the original it is the child that is the central figure of the myth. He is Joseph Campbell’s “Hero with a Thousand Faces”. That identity was not possible to know until the Gozo artifact came to light; then it was unmistakable.

The civilisations of Homo Sapiens owe their success for survival to that Hero.

Full story: “The Two Queens and the Megalithic Temples: The Search for their Identity and Meaning”.




Searching Evidence: Update 2

Updating evidence from Archaeology and Geology, and comparing to a number and type of proxies that together throw more light on the history of the megalithic calendars, and simultaneously on ‘Earth’ events.

In the historical chronology of the calendars there were two abrupt events, where the axial orientation of the calendar changed substantially (from an East/sunrise or West/sunset direction); between 42-45 degrees CW. From the calendar design evolution the last orientation change occurred around 3200bce. Evidence indicates the occurrence of ‘micro-plate’ tectonic rotation. Various proxies point, ambiguously, to such event; also to an earlier such event at 5200bce (ice rafting).

The design evolution indicated in the structural changes clearly shows the evolution of the technique adopted, and thus the chronological sequence of the various buildings. A critical part of the design is the ‘oculus’ or pinhole in the main portal, the latter designed similarly to the lens barrel of the photographic camera. The field of view (VA) is always limited to horizon sunrise point, solstice to solstice. At latitude 35.8 deg, this raises important questions on Earth obliquity. Variations in Earth ‘Temperature Anomaly’ appear to support such interpretation, in that polar versus equatorial variations agree in abruptness, direction and time of occurrence. Other proxies indicate such changes also, but give no hint as to what took place.

Recent finding that the archaic calendar design was used in Lampedusa provides corroboration of both tectonic rotations in the Med, and since VA is same at near same latitude, add support to hypothesis.


delta O2z1


Additional data is superimposed on chart, showing good correlation at ~5200bce and ~3200bce, both major tectonic events. (Source: )


Searching Evidence – 5; Tectonic Rotations

A ‘Travel and Culture’ article on the island of Lampedusa, in a weekend newspaper pointed to ancient prehistoric artefacts as possible megalithic temples. A close look at the site proved the ancient remnant as a megalithic calendar. A closer study of the ancient remains from what was provided on an internet site dedicated to the history of Lampedusa provided much food for thought.

The remains of the so called megalithic temple conformed dimensionally to the early megalithic calendar on Malta. In form it is an enclosure with a narrow doorway opposite of which is a horse-shoe apse. Axial alignment is North 15deg East. The field of view from a focal point inside the doorway is roughly about 36deg. Which would give an equinox to solstice angle of ~18deg at latitude ~35.5deg.

The equinox to solstice angle – ~18deg – (viewing angle) is same as that of the Maltese calendar of comparable shape; the very early type, pre 5200bce. That indicates an Earth obliquity much lower than established belief.

A second point is the axial orientation, indicating a rotation of about 75deg CCW from an East direction. In contrast the early calendars on the Maltese islands are rotated CW about 88deg, but in two distinctive abrupt steps. This points to tectonic events in the central Mediterranean.

Geologically, between the Maltese islands and Lampedusa lie an extensive and complex series of grabens of neotectonic nature. J.P. van Dijk, & P.J.J. Scheepers in “Neotectonic rotations in the Calabrian Arc; implications for a Pliocene-Recent geodynamic scenario for the Central Mediterranean”,  say “In order to be able to find the mechanism which may have caused the rotations, spatial as well as temporal aspects of the evolution of the Central Mediterranean have to be considered in combination. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the precise timing and location of tectonic rotations.”  In the paper the authors proposed rotational models. It appears that the ‘ball-bearing’ model is a good fit.


These archaeological structures indeed illuminate and question established ‘beliefs’. Tectonically they provide both ‘spatial as well as temporal aspects of the evolution of the Central Mediterranean’, by indicating the place and the date of rotations. The dimensions of the structures themselves, namely a viewing angle equinox-to-solstice of ~18deg seriously question an Earth tilt limited to 22-24deg for millions of years.

Final note: both early and later types of calendar were successfully tested in model form. That they are calendars is considered unquestionable.

Some correlations to the past.

Courtesy WUWT: “the climate, the hottest in modern human history, can change back on its own.”. Some correlations showing that it has done so repeatedly.

The difference is that in all instances in the Holocene climate did change; change abruptly, accompanied by repeated tectonic events. The most indicative correlations are not the tell-tales from the various proxies, but the evidence found from archaeology.

Temperature ‘anomaly’ from WUWT was compared to other proxies. The ‘jerks’ in the trace correlates to markers from other proxies, indicating series of events of a sinister nature in the Holocene, more than made out to be.

Megalithic Calendar Design Evolution


The evolution of the design of the megalithic calendar is an important aspect of these structures. Not only for its intrinsic ingenuity, but because of evident consecutive changes that tell of important pre-historical events that are not readily evident from other sources. In this respect the site at Ggantija in Gozo is ideal for such a study, once the apparent anomalies – and how it functioned – were unraveled.

The site appears to host two functionally separate but adjacent conjoined buildings, known as Main and North. The oldest part is actually the inner three apses of the Main; a central horse-shoe apse and two side apses. The outer two apses and another central portal were added at a later date. Here it can be perceived that there is a design change from full central apse method to partial apse and side solstice markers.

Adjacent is the North structure, where, at this site only, a second unit is found with apparently the same orientation. However here the ‘field of view’ or ‘viewing angle VA’ was reduced from about 23 degrees to 18 degrees (same common angle as several others at other sites). This unit still has standing the ‘free-standing’ solstice stones. Fortunately this somewhat queer arrangement pointed suggestively to the special function of these two stones.

To the south of the main structure is what seems to be the early stage of a third new unit, but that was aborted early. The axial orientation is towards present equinox horizon sunrise point, indicating a land CW rotation of some 37 degrees. There is also tenuous evidence that the North structure was built on an earlier one that today would have pointed axially towards the south; same as at several other sites.

The evidence at this site indicates two types of events unknown from most other evidence. Tectonic rotations of ‘micro-plates’ to south of Sicily, and Earth tilt changes beyond believed limits (this is another site that supports what the astronomer GF Dodwell asserted).


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