Mnajdra S, in operation after 5000 years – test of model.

As per picture text (Note: date is correct, but time is not correct). The superimposed picture is a screen-shot from video of the moment of sunrise, taken from within the model. The scale used is a quadrant divided by 90. Adjustment is needed since Spring has 92.8 days. Seasons vary from ~88 to ~94 days.

This unit is still fully functional (but that fact is not known). Yet its workings were the most difficult to unravel, until the method used in Ggantija North unit was perceived. When tested in model form it proved extremely accurate. The test objective was to forecast the solstice day. To date determining solstice day from observation was difficult; forecasting was impossible. The megalithic technique made it simple.

Forecasting and knowing the solstice day is essential in agriculture, to know the time window when the sowing for the coming year’s harvest can be made. Particularly for the cereals, the makers of civilisations. Mediterranean latitudes allow for only one cereal harvest per year, after the first rains of Autumn.

This calendar has another important feature. It was designed on a lower obliquity, same is the other next to it, but had to be modified by extending the surface for a change to higher obliquity. The two side stones are the extension.

Tour the site with Google Earth:,14.436509,3a,90y,208.24h,78.48t/data=!3m8!1e1!3m6!1s-CxezQUTFEXg%2FVCBgIqDewII%2FAAAAAAAA_u4%2FtryCRoLTDFc9F9uY7Dw5r0clPQ2wWWtpACLIB!2e4!3e11!!7i2508!8i1254

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Mnajdra South Calendar Design

mnajx1Mnajdra south optical calendar is the last in a series of design improvements and alterations. Grand in style and dimensions, it is the apex of more than 3000 years of development in megalithic calendar design and building.

Time around the equinox was still followed by the old system, a central partial apse at the back, a remnant of the horse-shoe apse. For time around the solstices the side ‘solstice marker’ was used. This was a more accurate method, permitting the predicting of the solstice day and time accurately.

The odd appearance belies the evidence of an important alteration that was implemented at some time after it was built. Originally it had a field of view, solstice to solstice, of about 36 degrees, same as several earlier others. The display surface was extended (solstice extenders) at a later date to a field of view of about 58 degrees ( today’s earth tilt ).

Searching Evidence

This is another montage of data from different sources that highlight a span of time in Holocene max that had a great effect on human history, and that is presently hardly known.

Some due explanations: In the picture the background is Earth temperature for the last 4M years, c. wiki: “Temperature of planet earth”. It shows the holocene and an earlier four glacials. Superimposed rt. is Holocene compared to 3rd earlier inter-glacial c. Wuwt. Upper left added chart from paper by D’Andrea et al “Glacier response to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene”.

Indicated are the tell-tales of the 7200BP and 5200BP events that are crucial to understanding the megalithic calendars and their apparently anomalous orientations. The calendars are evidence/proof of tectonic micro-plate rotations in the central Mediterranean.

Comparing Proxies

Dating events from various proxies, and comparing to calendar design changes and alterations.
Calendars need to be axially aligned to equinox sunrise point on horizon. At ~5200bce and then at ~3200bce there are changes of axial orientation, always CCW, indicating major cataclysmic seismic events. (Note: viewing angle is equinox to solstice of horizon sunrise point, at latitude 35.8 deg N).

Breaking an Ancient Code



Examples of calendars of later design. Each calendar is shown to a different scale, but matched to same and common proportions.

Below are three calendars. They appear different, but the functional parameters are exactly the same. Ggantija North (pre 3200bce) was key to understanding how they worked. Mnajdra middle (similar age but different form, pre 3200bce) and Mnajdra south (post 3200bce, similar form) are side by side, but have different orientation. The latter also incorporates a change in solstice position some time after construction.

This form of calendar appeared shortly after 3550bce, but the technique was developed from an earlier ‘transition’ form . The Ta Hagrat unit is an early form but shows this transition.

Humanity and the Holocene. What happened, when, where.

Background chart courtesy Andy May (from WUWT). Additional material from paper “Glacier response to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene” by N. L. Balascio1, W. J. D’Andrea, and R. S. Bradley.

Chart has been updated to include events corresponding to dates, from various papers.

Dates and events in chart and in paper correlate, also with megalithic astronomical calendar changes, in both orientation changes and in design changes. The calendars retain evidence of repeated cataclysmic events during the Holocene maximum.

The Two Queens – in different eras.

Updated. The added lower picture offers an explanation to the metaphorical meaning of the figurines. An allegory between human reproduction and vegetative reproduction. Central to meaning is the plow that penetrates the Earth (or the Earth Mother) to sow the grain seed in the furrow, thus impregnating the Earth, rendering it fertile and productive.
Updated pic. Look at the curious imagery (in red circle), it is key to the allegory that the picture imparts. The fertilisation of Mother Earth in personification. The statuettes are a central feature in a very ancient mythical story, but meant to represent cereal cultivation.

The Two Queens

One of several such statuettes, this one dates to pre 3200bce. Not symbolic of cult, but is a science of the cereals, their genetic development, and their cultivation. Also a form of ancient myth-like folklore that in its many subtle changes survives to this day.

The Calendars of Megalithic Malta

Megalithic structure, originally considered as cult temples due to their close links to what seemed cult figurines. Their connection to the biological grain/cereal cycle (see ‘The Two Queens’) hinted at a calendar function. Book relates the search to discover how they worked, how their design evolved technically, and the anomalies that became evident.
Results of tests of both early and later designs prove their functionality and surprising accuracy (see elsewhere on this site).

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