Mnajdra S, in operation after 5000 years – test of model.

As per picture text (Note: date is correct, but time is not correct). The superimposed picture is a screen-shot from video of the moment of sunrise, taken from within the model. The scale used is a quadrant divided by 90. Adjustment is needed since Spring has 92.8 days. Seasons vary from ~88 to ~94 days.

This unit is still fully functional (but that fact is not known). Yet its workings were the most difficult to unravel, until the method used in Ggantija North unit was perceived. When tested in model form it proved extremely accurate. The test objective was to forecast the solstice day. To date determining solstice day from observation was difficult; forecasting was impossible. The megalithic technique made it simple.

Forecasting and knowing the solstice day is essential in agriculture, to know the time window when the sowing for the coming year’s harvest can be made. Particularly for the cereals, the makers of civilisations. Mediterranean latitudes allow for only one cereal harvest per year, after the first rains of Autumn.

This calendar has another important feature. It was designed on a lower obliquity, same is the other next to it, but had to be modified by extending the surface for a change to higher obliquity. The two side stones are the extension.

Tour the site with Google Earth:,14.436509,3a,90y,208.24h,78.48t/data=!3m8!1e1!3m6!1s-CxezQUTFEXg%2FVCBgIqDewII%2FAAAAAAAA_u4%2FtryCRoLTDFc9F9uY7Dw5r0clPQ2wWWtpACLIB!2e4!3e11!!7i2508!8i1254

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Humanity and the Holocene. What happened, when, where.

Background chart courtesy Andy May (from WUWT). Additional material from paper “Glacier response to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene” by N. L. Balascio1, W. J. D’Andrea, and R. S. Bradley.

Chart has been updated to include events corresponding to dates, from various papers.

Dates and events in chart and in paper correlate, also with megalithic astronomical calendar changes, in both orientation changes and in design changes. The calendars retain evidence of repeated cataclysmic events during the Holocene maximum.

The Two Queens – in different eras.

Updated. The added lower picture offers an explanation to the metaphorical meaning of the figurines. An allegory between human reproduction and vegetative reproduction. Central to meaning is the plow that penetrates the Earth (or the Earth Mother) to sow the grain seed in the furrow, thus impregnating the Earth, rendering it fertile and productive.
Updated pic. Look at the curious imagery (in red circle), it is key to the allegory that the picture imparts. The fertilisation of Mother Earth in personification. The statuettes are a central feature in a very ancient mythical story, but meant to represent cereal cultivation.

The Two Queens

One of several such statuettes, this one dates to pre 3200bce. Not symbolic of cult, but is a science of the cereals, their genetic development, and their cultivation. Also a form of ancient myth-like folklore that in its many subtle changes survives to this day.

The Calendars of Megalithic Malta

Megalithic structure, originally considered as cult temples due to their close links to what seemed cult figurines. Their connection to the biological grain/cereal cycle (see ‘The Two Queens’) hinted at a calendar function. Book relates the search to discover how they worked, how their design evolved technically, and the anomalies that became evident.
Results of tests of both early and later designs prove their functionality and surprising accuracy (see elsewhere on this site).

Melitamegalithic -Ggantija North calendar

This is the later and improved method used as a calendar to follow the solar year through the seasons. Shown here is another calendar, and an easy method of telling the time of year, and forecasting accurately the solstice day and time. Measuring movement over some days makes for a more accurate forecast.

Ggantija North is adjacent to an older calendar, both having nearly same orientation. However the equinox to solstice angle in the later unit is 18deg, as against a previous 23deg in the older one. Reason for building a second unit on same orientation. Date: just after ~3550bce.

Ggantija North became suddenly obsolete due to the 3200bce event. View the main solstice stones here courtesy Google Earth:,14.26913,3a,90y,353.28h,103.57t/data=!3m8!1e1!3m6!1s-C4E_yNv9veg%2FWJvFqfbHipI%2FAAAAAAAALio%2Fu3IRmda5rCoh0mnR3k4s3EuzsTixkFEJgCLIB!2e4!3e11!!7i5376!8i2688?hl=en-US

Megalithic Calendars

This is an early form of calendar, one of several, and key to understanding purpose and function of these megalithic structures. Based on optics of the ‘eye’, nature’s ‘camera obscura’. Translates ~sinusoidal movement of object/shadow to a linear movement – easy to tell time of year, except near solstices. Later modified to new method with better forecasting of date (see Ggantija N), and time of solstices. Lat 35.8N
The ‘field of view’ is limited to 18degrees, the equinox to solstice angle, giving a clear indication of Earth’s obliquity at the time of build. Corroborate G F Dodwell’s claim.
This is the later of two units at this site. The early one is pre 5200bce, the other post that date. Dated according to proxies -see other pics-. All obsolete in 3200bce event.

Tour, courtesy Google Earth:,14.3686938,3a,75y,259.48h,101.3t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sIemAicO7H-UAAAQvxgUd-Q!2e0!7i13312!8i6656

Using multiple proxies to determine calendar date-of-build.

Dating events from various proxies, and comparing to calendar design changes and alterations. These indicate Earth obliquity changes between 7000bce and 2000bce. (Note: viewing angle is equinox to solstice of horizon sunrise point, at latitude 35.8 deg N).
Calendars need to be axially aligned to equinox sunrise point on horizon. At ~5200bce and then at ~3200bce there are changes of axial orientation, always ACW, indicating major cataclysmic seismic events.

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